Sunday, December 17, 2017

Project Management

Indian construction sector players have the ability to deliver but they are still at the learning curve

 

 

The Pune based National Institute of Construction Management and Research (NICMAR) is a non-profit organisation engaged in activities for the promotion of education, training, research, professionalism and skill formation at all levels of the construction and other allied industries. SHRIKANT RAO met MANGESH KORGAONKER, DIRECTOR GENERAL, NICMAR for an understanding of the project management hurdles ahead as the new government prepares for the challenge of delivering on the $1 trillion infrastructure agenda.

 

 

 

India has a massive $1 trillion agenda of infrastructure construction: a lot of it is unfinished business and naturally evokes cynicism from an implementation perspective. What is your own view
of this? 

 

First and foremost we need not be sceptical about India’s ability to be able to execute projects of the size mentioned, and planned to be carried out during the Plan period.  I don’t think it is impossible. But if you look at the history of our performance vis-à-vis what we plan I think we have never been able to achieve planned targets fully. It has been the history of all our planning that we are always for some reason or the other short of targets. If you look at the 11th Five Year Plan also, we haven’t achieved all our targets and that applies to infrastructure also. We are talking of $1 trillion now, half of that was anticipated in the previous Five Year Plan.  Of the planned target billion earlier, I think it is appropriate to say that a little over 50 percent may have been actually  realised. When you talk of the very massive kind of investments going into a particular sector, we must also take into account numerous risks like financial, technical, and even procedural. The larger the size of your project and the investments, obviously risks also keep amplifying. Therefore, in a country like India, these things are to be expected. My feeling is that this is mainly because everyone is in a learning phase. We have construction companies trying to learn what one needs to put up in a giant project and so on. All of them don’t necessarily have the capacity or the talent or the technological resources. We need to adopt an assembly approach to projects and stitch it all together while executing the projects. The more in-house talent we are able to create, the smoother the approach will be and better will be our abilities to execute projects of this type. We ought to understand that it was in the Eleventh Plan that infrastructure was emphasised for the first time. The nation suddenly decided to invest huge amounts. We are now talking of doubling the investment. When you talk of executing a project of Rs 1000 crore vis-à-vis a project of Rs 10,000 crore the risks increase. We shouldn’t expect the approach to be as smooth as we’d like it to be.

So we must give them a benefit of doubt and must understand that at least in the field of infrastructure, we are at an evolutionary or learning phase. Being critical is necessary. We can learn lessons but at the same time we should not undermine the efforts of the infrastructure sector. I think manufacturing has seen worst times compared to infrastructure, I think until liberalisation happened in 1991 manufacturing was one sector in which we struggled very hard as compared to the strides made by infrastructure in a short period of time. We are today at a completely different level all together, and it is something we as a nation should be proud of.

 

 

 

Can you talk of any shining examples of projects that lead you to believe we are on the right track?

 

I would like to cite examples, many shining pieces of what we have been able to execute in today’s environment. For example, we have now built some of the longest underground tunnels in the world and we have put up some really long bridges something we haven’t done before. Our ability to build high rises of a higher productivity levels is of a different order today than ever before, as is our ability to build world-class airports and ports. These are outstanding examples of what the nation has been able to achieve. But we must give ourselves time to achieve more. In that sense it is very heartening for us to see a large number of players who are bringing with them the whole lot of prior experience of operating in other fields, in terms of how best practices can be introduced into the construction sector. I’m alluding to players who have entered infrastructure, either from manufacturing or IT. They will help the industry acquire what you may call a more professional approach.
 

 

 

Such as project management...

 

Yes and everything else that goes with it. Whether you talk of project management, contract management or technology management you see a different approach

 

 

 

Can you name some successful players?

 

Reliance is a big name from manufactur-ing background but is now a huge player in infrastructure. L&T is another example. At some point of time, L&T had a big business in manufacturing. Today L&T is more known for its construction activities. The gap between the top players and the other old players I think is increasing all the time. Infrastructure as a whole will move forward because of the entry of new players. I notice that the approaches adopted by players in infrastructure are greatly similar to approaches adopted by players in manufacturing. I’ll give an example without naming them. Since liberalisation happened in 1991 till about 2000, we noticed that some manufacturing companies started expanding and investing in a big way regardless of whether there was a requirement for it or not.  Thanks to this investment-heavy approach financially they ended up being affected because of the huge risk they took. The same thing has happened in infrastructure too.

We must give credit to the fact that we have in the last ten years taken tremendous strides in the field of infrastructure. It is also a fact though that we haven’t been able to move as fast as we were expected to move. Keeping a target is fine but I’d be happy even if one half of that target is achieved.

 

 

 

Granted that India is on a learning curve but there ought to a timeline for implementation of projects..

 

Let me explain your question at the project level. If I talk about a project costing Rs 3000 crore in any state there are three things to be worried about - the cost, time of delivery, and how well it will be delivered in terms of quality. Now imagine of the Rs 3000 crore project to be completed: how much time will they typically give themselves? Let’s assume they say two years. You give Rs 5000 crore to the same company and ask them how much time it will take to complete? They will say three years. Extending that question further if you give them Rs 10,000 crore for a project and ask how much time they will take...it won’t be easy for them to respond. How many firms in India will be able to quote correctly the timeframe to complete a Rs 10,000 crore project? Do we have the ability at all? – is what I ask. We are accustomed to building projects up to Rs 1000 crore, we will learn 3000 crore, then we will learn 5000 crore and then we will know about 10,000 crore. There are only few exceptions of people who have gone beyond 10,000 crore and have done a very good job of it. The Reliance refinery at Jamnagar, suppose it was built in 36 months that is only their execution timeline. That timeline does not include planning etc. It is not unique to our country, happens elsewhere also. A lot of time is required for planning. Look at the Navi Mumbai Airport. It has been in the conception, planning stage for such a long period of time. The day execution starts it will be completed in four years. So let me tell you the ability to execute projects is certainly there but as projects get bigger, technology and skills advance we reach a stage where very few of these players are even in a position to predict correctly the kind of timeframes required to execute these projects. That’s why I’m saying we yet in the learning phase. Of course the approach that is adopted when a company is not able to do all of this is to try to put together a consortium. The government has provided a nice vehicle in the form of an SPV with which you can bring together all these people and move forward. And that is why we see some good airports being built by this mechanism in a very good timeframe. A classic example of that is the creation of the T2 Terminal in Mumbai. It happened without the knowledge of the majority of people. And we came to know about it only when it was approaching completion. Every project being different from the other, the learning curve will last for a longer period of time.

 

 

 

Are you seeing a discernible sign of improvement in project management?

 

If you see the earlier airports, like Hyderabad, Bengaluru, Delhi T3 and Mumbai T2, you can see a distinct progression in terms of everything, even in terms of technology dimension. I would therefore say there is advancement. Therefore the learning curve becomes longer and longer. It is difficult to say if our firms will quickly descend from the learning curve. If we had opted for a standardisation approach – like saying we have a particular model of airport, let’s adopt that for all the other airports – there would have been some kind of repetition in it and our learning curve would have been much faster. We are not doing that for sure. Even in road building activities, which is in fact, the most repetitious activity that you can imagine that kind of learning curve is not seen. But there are other factors which we have to learn, not technology per se, but like managing stakeholders.
 

 

 

The Roads and Highways sector is seen as laggard...

 

One would like to see it moving. I think in road building activity, we should have learnt much faster because admittedly technology and the complexity level in road building is of a far lesser level as compared to other areas. But there are other factors, which we will have to learn like acquiring land, how to manage various stakeholders.

 

 

 

Does NICMAR teach all this?

 

We have to, and we are. In the future as these projects become megasized and will directly challenge a whole lot of stakeholders, there will be resistance, tugs and pulls. We need to be able to manage those pressures. Pressures are an integral part of infrastructural activity, project execution and project management. They must not be considered, by no stretch of imagination, as a burden. The day our firms learn this they will know there is a cost associated with management of stakeholders. When you do your project costing and everything, these will be appropriately factored, these will not be considered as optional or
an afterthought.

 

 

 

What are the project management lessons India can draw from a country like China?

 

Most Chinese projects are far bigger in size compared to India. Then I force myself to ask the question, “Why should the learning curve be so long for Indians and Indian companies when it was apparently not for Chinese companies?” But then I feel in every other field we’ve had a longer learning curve compared to the Chinese. They are much faster in innovation for example, also in innovative products. How many innovative products do we look for from India every year? It can be counted at our fingertips whereas China is known to flood the markets with innovative products. Longevity and other traits apart it is a fact that they are innovative and create an impact with their product.

 

 

 

So what is more important: longevity or innovation?

 

I think both are very important. Innovation is more so, particularly in areas which are highly technological driven. So if you look at products which are highly knowledge driven or technology driven, there innovation is the name of the game. We are not there if we don’t innovate. We talk of our manufacturing sector not growing. We must understand some of the successful manufacturing have been completely innovation driven across the whole range of regions. And if we continue to adopt an approach which is less innovation driven we may have a disadvantage. When people build 1000 m tall structures, for example, do you think that will happen without innovation? When you look at some of the modern airport being put up worldwide now, do you think that is happening without innovation? Construction is as much an innovation driven sector compared to other sectors.  So some old notions that we have that this sector is highly labour intensive and that there is no other option to this than to employ more and more unskilled labour, is a completely myth. It is true that if we take statistics from the National Skill Development Corporation, by the year 2022 India will need an additional 4.7 crore of manpower in various categories. Of those 4.7 crore, about 80-85 percent will be unskilled. I’m saying you are forecasting for the year 2022 and you are still forecasting unskilled labours of up to 80-85 percent. This means that I’m completely ignoring the change that could possibly take place. You are completely ignoring innovation and technology and also that you need a talented workforce, not so much unskilled workforce. Talent is in short supply. That is another bottleneck we need to face. But the fact is this industry is heading to be highly talent driven, resource driven, technology driven and we must understand that is the way we are moving. We need to change our approach. 

 

 

 

You are talking about a change in delivery model?

 

Yes we have to change the delivery model. We have to change how we have organised ourselves, also the notion that construction is a highly labour intensive activity and that a huge amount of unskilled labour force is required for it. Today, that is the mindset and that is why we talk of the appalling conditions in which people work. All that needs to change. And though I say that we have mastered technology in education, we need to master other areas also. In general I feel when we are learning we have to learn a variety of things, we need to build competencies in project management itself, not only managing small projects and so on, but managing mega projects. Right now there is a big gap in project management.

 

 

 

China is a frontrunner?

 

China is definitely ahead. In India we don’t have any agency that officially certifies project management or project managers. There are certified agencies in China who are able to internally certify project engineers we don’t have a single agency in India to do that. If we are talking about $1 trillion investments to be executed via the project route I would certainly want to know why as a nation can we not expedite a process of setting up a body that can certify people working on these projects? You don’t have to set up huge institutions, you just need to bring in new certifying agencies, develop appropriate curricula, publicise them country wide, and provide a suitable mechanism in order to ensure most of the companies that are operating have it implemented. If this kind of certification was made mandatory, do you think they would operate without their certification? No way. How is this happening in the Middle East? They have made getting this certification mandatory for companies. Why are we not doing that? I am not able to understand this at all so far as project management is concerned. There are many other areas like contract management where we have a long way to go because it is high legalistic in nature. Whereas the international approach to project management is not that legalistic, they have contracts document and all that but the approach is not legalistic. Our approach is very legalistic and we need to understand that there is a management component of managing contracts. Should we also not develop some professional capabilities in order to manage the management component?  Another area where skills are scarce and not up  to the mark is estimation or quantity surveying. We have a long way to go. There are actions needed both by the companies themselves and also substantially by the Government of India. Otherwise there is going to be a gap. You would not want activity to be projected in an India of 2022 which is the very same of what it was in 2008. You cannot have the labour composition, or the technology composition or current competency scale you have in the market – all that has to change.  

 

 

 

So what is your prescription?

 

It all really starts with the government. We need a facilitative environment and there is a huge urgency for that. I am happy with the government emphasis on infrastructure. That emphasis has been there, mind you, but somewhere along the line from what was a highly facilitating environment it has become an adversarial environment to the extent that people who saw these areas as opportunities have withdrawn into their shells. And that is not good for the sector and not good for the country. Everyone knows infrastructure is the mother sector. Without developing infra, nothing else can develop and it is required across the entire country, be it urban areas or rural areas. So there is inevitability about its implementation. There will be no going back on that.

 

 

 

How would you at NICMAR like to contribute to this effort?

 

NICMAR is an educational institute. We strongly believe that we are there for the service of the construction industry. We are into human resource development and our mission will be to the best of our abilities to ensure that the human resources we provide matches up to the expectations of the industry or does even better. In my view NICMAR is a benchmark institution as far as the construction sector is concerned. So if I have to go by quality programmes or quality education, people who are not only employable graduates but whom institutions will be proud of having them, I think we play that role. Indian construction sector players have the ability to deliver but they are still at the learning curve

 

The Pune based National Institute of Construction Management and Research (NICMAR) is a non-profit organisation engaged in activities for the promotion of education, training, research, professionalism and skill formation at all levels of the construction and other allied industries. SHRIKANT RAO met MANGESH KORGAONKER, DIRECTOR GENERAL, NICMAR for an understanding of the project management hurdles ahead as the new government prepares for the challenge of delivering on the $1 trillion infrastructure agenda.

 

 

 

India has a massive $1 trillion agenda of infrastructure construction: a lot of it is unfinished business and naturally evokes cynicism from an implementation perspective. What is your own view
of this? 

 

First and foremost we need not be sceptical about India’s ability to be able to execute projects of the size mentioned, and planned to be carried out during the Plan period.  I don’t think it is impossible. But if you look at the history of our performance vis-à-vis what we plan I think we have never been able to achieve planned targets fully. It has been the history of all our planning that we are always for some reason or the other short of targets. If you look at the 11th Five Year Plan also, we haven’t achieved all our targets and that applies to infrastructure also. We are talking of $1 trillion now, half of that was anticipated in the previous Five Year Plan.  Of the planned target billion earlier, I think it is appropriate to say that a little over 50 percent may have been actually  realised. When you talk of the very massive kind of investments going into a particular sector, we must also take into account numerous risks like financial, technical, and even procedural. The larger the size of your project and the investments, obviously risks also keep amplifying. Therefore, in a country like India, these things are to be expected. My feeling is that this is mainly because everyone is in a learning phase. We have construction companies trying to learn what one needs to put up in a giant project and so on. All of them don’t necessarily have the capacity or the talent or the technological resources. We need to adopt an assembly approach to projects and stitch it all together while executing the projects. The more in-house talent we are able to create, the smoother the approach will be and better will be our abilities to execute projects of this type. We ought to understand that it was in the Eleventh Plan that infrastructure was emphasised for the first time. The nation suddenly decided to invest huge amounts. We are now talking of doubling the investment. When you talk of executing a project of Rs 1000 crore vis-à-vis a project of Rs 10,000 crore the risks increase. We shouldn’t expect the approach to be as smooth as we’d like it to be.

So we must give them a benefit of doubt and must understand that at least in the field of infrastructure, we are at an evolutionary or learning phase. Being critical is necessary. We can learn lessons but at the same time we should not undermine the efforts of the infrastructure sector. I think manufacturing has seen worst times compared to infrastructure, I think until liberalisation happened in 1991 manufacturing was one sector in which we struggled very hard as compared to the strides made by infrastructure in a short period of time. We are today at a completely different level all together, and it is something we as a nation should be proud of.

 

 

 

Can you talk of any shining examples of projects that lead you to believe we are on the right track?

 

I would like to cite examples, many shining pieces of what we have been able to execute in today’s environment. For example, we have now built some of the longest underground tunnels in the world and we have put up some really long bridges something we haven’t done before. Our ability to build high rises of a higher productivity levels is of a different order today than ever before, as is our ability to build world-class airports and ports. These are outstanding examples of what the nation has been able to achieve. But we must give ourselves time to achieve more. In that sense it is very heartening for us to see a large number of players who are bringing with them the whole lot of prior experience of operating in other fields, in terms of how best practices can be introduced into the construction sector. I’m alluding to players who have entered infrastructure, either from manufacturing or IT. They will help the industry acquire what you may call a more professional approach.
 

 

 

Such as project management...

 

Yes and everything else that goes with it. Whether you talk of project management, contract management or technology management you see a different approach

 

 

 

Can you name some successful players?

 

Reliance is a big name from manufactur-ing background but is now a huge player in infrastructure. L&T is another example. At some point of time, L&T had a big business in manufacturing. Today L&T is more known for its construction activities. The gap between the top players and the other old players I think is increasing all the time. Infrastructure as a whole will move forward because of the entry of new players. I notice that the approaches adopted by players in infrastructure are greatly similar to approaches adopted by players in manufacturing. I’ll give an example without naming them. Since liberalisation happened in 1991 till about 2000, we noticed that some manufacturing companies started expanding and investing in a big way regardless of whether there was a requirement for it or not.  Thanks to this investment-heavy approach financially they ended up being affected because of the huge risk they took. The same thing has happened in infrastructure too.

We must give credit to the fact that we have in the last ten years taken tremendous strides in the field of infrastructure. It is also a fact though that we haven’t been able to move as fast as we were expected to move. Keeping a target is fine but I’d be happy even if one half of that target is achieved.

 

 

 

Granted that India is on a learning curve but there ought to a timeline for implementation of projects..

 

Let me explain your question at the project level. If I talk about a project costing Rs 3000 crore in any state there are three things to be worried about - the cost, time of delivery, and how well it will be delivered in terms of quality. Now imagine of the Rs 3000 crore project to be completed: how much time will they typically give themselves? Let’s assume they say two years. You give Rs 5000 crore to the same company and ask them how much time it will take to complete? They will say three years. Extending that question further if you give them Rs 10,000 crore for a project and ask how much time they will take...it won’t be easy for them to respond. How many firms in India will be able to quote correctly the timeframe to complete a Rs 10,000 crore project? Do we have the ability at all? – is what I ask. We are accustomed to building projects up to Rs 1000 crore, we will learn 3000 crore, then we will learn 5000 crore and then we will know about 10,000 crore. There are only few exceptions of people who have gone beyond 10,000 crore and have done a very good job of it. The Reliance refinery at Jamnagar, suppose it was built in 36 months that is only their execution timeline. That timeline does not include planning etc. It is not unique to our country, happens elsewhere also. A lot of time is required for planning. Look at the Navi Mumbai Airport. It has been in the conception, planning stage for such a long period of time. The day execution starts it will be completed in four years. So let me tell you the ability to execute projects is certainly there but as projects get bigger, technology and skills advance we reach a stage where very few of these players are even in a position to predict correctly the kind of timeframes required to execute these projects. That’s why I’m saying we yet in the learning phase. Of course the approach that is adopted when a company is not able to do all of this is to try to put together a consortium. The government has provided a nice vehicle in the form of an SPV with which you can bring together all these people and move forward. And that is why we see some good airports being built by this mechanism in a very good timeframe. A classic example of that is the creation of the T2 Terminal in Mumbai. It happened without the knowledge of the majority of people. And we came to know about it only when it was approaching completion. Every project being different from the other, the learning curve will last for a longer period of time.

 

 

 

Are you seeing a discernible sign of improvement in project management?

 

If you see the earlier airports, like Hyderabad, Bengaluru, Delhi T3 and Mumbai T2, you can see a distinct progression in terms of everything, even in terms of technology dimension. I would therefore say there is advancement. Therefore the learning curve becomes longer and longer. It is difficult to say if our firms will quickly descend from the learning curve. If we had opted for a standardisation approach – like saying we have a particular model of airport, let’s adopt that for all the other airports – there would have been some kind of repetition in it and our learning curve would have been much faster. We are not doing that for sure. Even in road building activities, which is in fact, the most repetitious activity that you can imagine that kind of learning curve is not seen. But there are other factors which we have to learn, not technology per se, but like managing stakeholders.
 

 

 

The Roads and Highways sector is seen as laggard...

 

One would like to see it moving. I think in road building activity, we should have learnt much faster because admittedly technology and the complexity level in road building is of a far lesser level as compared to other areas. But there are other factors, which we will have to learn like acquiring land, how to manage various stakeholders.

 

 

 

Does NICMAR teach all this?

 

We have to, and we are. In the future as these projects become megasized and will directly challenge a whole lot of stakeholders, there will be resistance, tugs and pulls. We need to be able to manage those pressures. Pressures are an integral part of infrastructural activity, project execution and project management. They must not be considered, by no stretch of imagination, as a burden. The day our firms learn this they will know there is a cost associated with management of stakeholders. When you do your project costing and everything, these will be appropriately factored, these will not be considered as optional or
an afterthought.

 

 

 

What are the project management lessons India can draw from a country like China?

 

Most Chinese projects are far bigger in size compared to India. Then I force myself to ask the question, “Why should the learning curve be so long for Indians and Indian companies when it was apparently not for Chinese companies?” But then I feel in every other field we’ve had a longer learning curve compared to the Chinese. They are much faster in innovation for example, also in innovative products. How many innovative products do we look for from India every year? It can be counted at our fingertips whereas China is known to flood the markets with innovative products. Longevity and other traits apart it is a fact that they are innovative and create an impact with their product.

 

 

 

So what is more important: longevity or innovation?

 

I think both are very important. Innovation is more so, particularly in areas which are highly technological driven. So if you look at products which are highly knowledge driven or technology driven, there innovation is the name of the game. We are not there if we don’t innovate. We talk of our manufacturing sector not growing. We must understand some of the successful manufacturing have been completely innovation driven across the whole range of regions. And if we continue to adopt an approach which is less innovation driven we may have a disadvantage. When people build 1000 m tall structures, for example, do you think that will happen without innovation? When you look at some of the modern airport being put up worldwide now, do you think that is happening without innovation? Construction is as much an innovation driven sector compared to other sectors.  So some old notions that we have that this sector is highly labour intensive and that there is no other option to this than to employ more and more unskilled labour, is a completely myth. It is true that if we take statistics from the National Skill Development Corporation, by the year 2022 India will need an additional 4.7 crore of manpower in various categories. Of those 4.7 crore, about 80-85 percent will be unskilled. I’m saying you are forecasting for the year 2022 and you are still forecasting unskilled labours of up to 80-85 percent. This means that I’m completely ignoring the change that could possibly take place. You are completely ignoring innovation and technology and also that you need a talented workforce, not so much unskilled workforce. Talent is in short supply. That is another bottleneck we need to face. But the fact is this industry is heading to be highly talent driven, resource driven, technology driven and we must understand that is the way we are moving. We need to change our approach. 

 

 

 

You are talking about a change in delivery model?

 

Yes we have to change the delivery model. We have to change how we have organised ourselves, also the notion that construction is a highly labour intensive activity and that a huge amount of unskilled labour force is required for it. Today, that is the mindset and that is why we talk of the appalling conditions in which people work. All that needs to change. And though I say that we have mastered technology in education, we need to master other areas also. In general I feel when we are learning we have to learn a variety of things, we need to build competencies in project management itself, not only managing small projects and so on, but managing mega projects. Right now there is a big gap in project management.

 

 

 

China is a frontrunner?

 

China is definitely ahead. In India we don’t have any agency that officially certifies project management or project managers. There are certified agencies in China who are able to internally certify project engineers we don’t have a single agency in India to do that. If we are talking about $1 trillion investments to be executed via the project route I would certainly want to know why as a nation can we not expedite a process of setting up a body that can certify people working on these projects? You don’t have to set up huge institutions, you just need to bring in new certifying agencies, develop appropriate curricula, publicise them country wide, and provide a suitable mechanism in order to ensure most of the companies that are operating have it implemented. If this kind of certification was made mandatory, do you think they would operate without their certification? No way. How is this happening in the Middle East? They have made getting this certification mandatory for companies. Why are we not doing that? I am not able to understand this at all so far as project management is concerned. There are many other areas like contract management where we have a long way to go because it is high legalistic in nature. Whereas the international approach to project management is not that legalistic, they have contracts document and all that but the approach is not legalistic. Our approach is very legalistic and we need to understand that there is a management component of managing contracts. Should we also not develop some professional capabilities in order to manage the management component?  Another area where skills are scarce and not up  to the mark is estimation or quantity surveying. We have a long way to go. There are actions needed both by the companies themselves and also substantially by the Government of India. Otherwise there is going to be a gap. You would not want activity to be projected in an India of 2022 which is the very same of what it was in 2008. You cannot have the labour composition, or the technology composition or current competency scale you have in the market – all that has to change.  

 

 

 

So what is your prescription?

 

It all really starts with the government. We need a facilitative environment and there is a huge urgency for that. I am happy with the government emphasis on infrastructure. That emphasis has been there, mind you, but somewhere along the line from what was a highly facilitating environment it has become an adversarial environment to the extent that people who saw these areas as opportunities have withdrawn into their shells. And that is not good for the sector and not good for the country. Everyone knows infrastructure is the mother sector. Without developing infra, nothing else can develop and it is required across the entire country, be it urban areas or rural areas. So there is inevitability about its implementation. There will be no going back on that.

 

 

 

How would you at NICMAR like to contribute to this effort?

 

NICMAR is an educational institute. We strongly believe that we are there for the service of the construction industry. We are into human resource development and our mission will be to the best of our abilities to ensure that the human resources we provide matches up to the expectations of the industry or does even better. In my view NICMAR is a benchmark institution as far as the construction sector is concerned. So if I have to go by quality programmes or quality education, people who are not only employable graduates but whom institutions will be proud of having them, I think we play that role.

 




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